income for music makers
These are paid by record companies and film
and TV producers in order to acquire the right to reproduce
a piece of music onto records or tapes.
are also recording artists, they are also entitled to artist
royalties which usually range from 10% to 25% of the suggested
retail price for top-line albums, with deductions being made for
Synchronization fees are paid by record companies and film and TV producers in order to acquire the right to reproduce a song onto a soundtrack of a film or tv show. The terms of the license depend upon such factors as the importance of the song, the duration and type of use, the geographic scope etc.
Songwriters are entitled to royalties when their songs are sung or played, (either live or recorded), on radio and television or in public places . Such royalties go to the composer through his performing rights organization, which grants licenses to perform the music to thousands of music users, such as broadcasting stations, hotels, clubs, colleges, concert halls, wired music services, restaurants, stores, airlines,etc.These organizations negotiate license-fee agreements with the users of music which give the user the right to perform the music and lyrics of any member of these organizations. The fees collected are then distributed to the writers and publishers whose works are performed in these various areas.
Grand rights licensing
A "grand" right is the right of the copyright owner to perform or license others to perform his song in a dramatic manner, such as acting out the lyrics of the song, accompanying the performance with costumes, scenery or plot, or performing the song in conjunction with all or part of a scripted show (in the case of a piece of music originally written for a musical show). All of those activities require a separate license from the one required for the small performing rights.
royalties from motion picture theaters
In most countries
, motion picture theaters are required to pay performance
royalties for music used in theatrically distributed films. These
fees are collected by the local performing-rights society in each
country and then distributed to the writers and publishers
whose music is contained in the films.Theater license fees
vary by country and are usually either a percentage of the
theater's box office receipts or a fee based on the number of
seats or the number of screenings per week.
The sale of
videos represents a significant source of revenue for the music
publisher and songwriter. Home-video licensing is normally
handled in one of three ways: (1) per-video royalty
, the royalty paid is based on a set rate for each video
sold. (2) one-time buy-out fee for all video
rights, regardless of how many videos might be sold . (3) roll-over
advance, the producer or video distributor pays a certain
advance for a specified number of videos, with additional
predetermined sums paid as certain sales plateaus are achieved .
source of income for the songwriter and music publisher is the
use of songs in radio and TV commercials for consumer products.
The fees paid by advertising agencies and their clients for
commercials depend on whether
(a) the commercial
is for radio or TV,
(b) there are
options for other countries,
(c) the original lyrics are being changed or new lyrics added,
(d) the licensing
is all-advertising exclusive or product-category-only
writer's song is recorded by somebody else this is called a
cover recording. Usually the writer's royalty from the
exploitation of "cover recordings" ranges between 50%
Audio home recording act
There is a section in the Copyright Law of most countries that provides for royalties to be paid to songwriters, music publishers, recording companies and recording artists for the importation or manufacture of digital audio recording equipment and blank digital tape and compact discs. The act imposes a royalty on the sale of such devices which is collected by collecting societies on behalf of their member songwriters, composers, and publishers.
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